Concrete, Virtual and Imaginary Space: Beckett’s Stage Directions

Luiz Fernando Ramos


Samuel Beckett has made a peculiar use of stage directions in his
theatre. Since the first plays, as Waiting for Godot, they became essential tools in order to establish a precise and restricted way of staging and guaranteeing the stage physicality he must have had in mind. After the sixties Beckett started to stage his own plays and his writing became yet more centered in rigorous stage directions. This article aims to describe, through the use he makes of stage directions, his evolution from being just a dramatist, in the fifties, till becoming a complete artist of the theatre in the eighties. In doing that intends to prove the utility of looking for stage directions in drama analysis, and to show how, from this point of view, Beckett’s theatre gets close of the work of artists commonly viewed as radically anti-theatrical, as is the case of Robert Wilson.


Samuel Beckett; Stage directions; Drama analysis.

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Alter, Jean. “Waiting for the referent – Waiting for Godot? On referring in theatre,” On Referring in Theatre. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1987.

____. A Socio-Semiotic Theory of Theatre. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1990.

Beckett, Samuel “Catastrophe”, The Complete Dramatic Works. London: Faber & Faber, 1986. 457.

____. “Play,” The Complete Dramatic Works. London: Faber & Faber, 1986. 320.

____. Eleuthéria, translated by Michael Brodsky. New York, Fox Rock, 1995. See also Macmillan & Fehsenfeld, Beckett in the Theatre. Londres: John Calder, 1988.. 30-1.

____. En Attendant Godot. Paris, Les Éditions de Minuit, 1952.

Halliwell, Stephen. The Poetics of Aristotle, translation and commentary. London: Duckworth, 1987.

Pavis, Patrice. “The Classical Heritage of Modern Drama. The Case of Postmodern Theatre,” Theatre at the Crossroads of Culture. London: Routledge, 1992.

Pountney, R. Theatre of Shadows: Samuel Beckett’s Drama – 1956-1976. Buckinghamshire, Colin Smythe & Gerard Cross, 1998.



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Direitos autorais 2020 Luiz Fernando Ramos

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Esta obra está licenciada sob uma licença Creative Commons Atribuição 4.0 Internacional.